The station was opened as "Theydon" by the Great Eastern Railway (GER) on 24 April 1865, as an intermediate station on their Loughton-Ongar extension; the GER became part of the London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) in 1923. 'Milk trains' to Liverpool Street were a regular feature in the timetable until the underpass from Leyton to Stratford was built. As part of the New Works Programme, 1935-1940, the LNER branch was transferred to London Underground, to form the part of the eastern extension of the Central line. The origin of the village place name comes from the family of Bois (de Bosco), which held the manor in the 12th and 13th centuries. The village name is usually pronounced to rhyme with "choice" or just "boys". The second part of the village name has been 'Boys', with various spellings, as far back as can be traced. When the Great Eastern Railway built its branch to Ongar, it asked the clerk of the Epping Parish Council, a Mr John Windas, how it should be spelt. As he had some knowledge of French and in view of the village's proximity to the forest, he suggested the best spelling would be 'Bois'.
The station was one of the first on the Underground network to operate without a staffed ticket office. For the purposes of fare charging it is in Zone 6. In 2015, advocacy by a local group forced a proposed 80-space commuter car park to seek planning permission before being constructed on land adjacent to the station. The station has toilets, a waiting room, boarding ramps and a bridge.
Connections: Local bus route 541 serves the station.