The station was originally opened on 22 August 1856 as part of the Eastern Counties Railway branch from Leyton to Loughton. Further alterations were carried out by the successor company, the Great Eastern Railway, including services to Ilford via the Fairlop Loop opened between Woodford and Newbury Park in 1903. After 1923 the station came under the control of the London & North Eastern Railway until transfer to the London Passenger Transport Board (LPTB) on 14 December 1947 as part of the extension of the Central line services of the London Underground. Woodford appears in the 1086 Domesday Book as Wdefort, although its earliest recorded use is earlier in 1062 as Wudeford. The name is Old English and means 'ford in or by the wood'. The ford refers to a crossing of the River Roding, which was replaced with a bridge by 1238; this led to the renaming of part of the district as Woodford Bridge by 1805. Similarly, part of the district gained the contemporary name of Woodford Green by 1883.
The main western entrance is located off The Broadway with access to the station car park. The eastern entrance is located on Snakes Lane East. This entrance is closed after 21:00 and intercom is used to ask staff to unlock the gates at other times if necessary. The ticket office on that entrance is also no longer in use. There are 3 platforms, one side and one island platform. Train frequencies vary throughout the day, but generally operate every 6–11 minutes between 05:22 and 00:49 eastbound to Epping, every 11–25 minutes between 06:48 and 23:37 to Hainault (and beyond) and every 5–10 minutes between 05:24 and 23:36 westbound. The station has cash machines, Euro cash machines, boarding ramps, payphones, toilets, a bridge, waiting room and car park.
Connections: London Bus routes 275, 549 and W14 serve the station.