The railway line from Stratford to Broxbourne was opened by the Northern & Eastern Railway on 15 September 1840. Cheshunt station itself was opened by the Eastern Counties Railway in 1846. The lines from Hackney Downs to Bishop's Stortford and Hertford East, including those through Cheshunt station, were electrified on 21 November 1960. The lines south from Cheshunt via Tottenham Hale were not electrified until 5 May 1969. A railway existed in Cheshunt before the station and the main line from London were originally opened in the 1840s. The horse-drawn Cheshunt Railway was opened on 26 June 1825. Based on a design by Henry Robinson Palmer, this line ran for 0.75 mi (1.21 km) from the town's High Street to the River Lea, near where Cheshunt station is today. This long-defunct railway is of interest as it was the world's first passenger-carrying monorail and the first railway line to open in Hertfordshire. The town name comes from the Old English name (as recorded in the Domesday Book) for the area, Cestrehunt, which probably refers to a "castle, erected by the Romans", the word cestre (along with the form ceastre), or even its modern forms, chester and caster being derived from the Latin castrum meaning "fort". Before the Norman Conquest, the manor of Cheshunt was held by Eddeva the Fair, but William I granted it to Alan of Brittany. The parish church of St Mary-the-Virgin was first recorded in a charter of 1146, but was entirely rebuilt between 1418 and 1448 with a three stage tower topped by an octagonal turret. As Princess Elizabeth, Queen Elizabeth I lived at Cheshunt in the care of Sir Anthony Denny, after she left Queen Catherine Parr's household in 1548. Richard Cromwell, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth, died here in 1712.
In the 2012 Summer Olympics, Cheshunt station (along with Waltham Cross, the next southbound station) was the main access point for the Broxbourne whitewater canoe and kayak slalom. An Oyster Card extension to Cheshunt station from Enfield Lock railway station/Turkey Street railway station is in force from 2 January 2013, with the station in Travelcard zone 8. This also means Waltham Cross railway station and Theobalds Grove railway station are also included in the extension and will allow passengers travelling to Central London to be able to use Oyster, rather than paper tickets to travel. Ticket barriers were installed in 2011. The through platforms (platforms 1 and 2) were extended to accommodate 12-coach trains in December 2011, though initially no 12-coach trains were scheduled to call. The typical off-peak service is: 4tph (trains per hour) to London Liverpool Street via Tottenham Hale, 2tph to London Liverpool Street via Seven Sisters, 2tph to Cambridge, 2tph to Bishops Stortford, 2tph to Hertford East, 2tph to Stratford. The Liverpool Street service via Seven Sisters is run by London Overground. Trains leave from platform 3. All other services are run by Abellio Greater Anglia. The station has wi-fi, payphones, a car park, cash machines, boarding ramps, help points and toilets.
Connections: National Rail. Bus route C1 serves the station. There is a taxi rank. Additional bus routes stop at Cheshunt Old Pond, a 10 minute walk away.