The station was opened by the Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton Railway on 15 December 1906. The station was designed by Leslie Green. The square is named after the surname of the Earls and Dukes of Bedford, who developed the family's London landholdings in the 17th and 18th centuries, beginning with Covent Garden (Bedford Street). Russell Square was formed when new streets were laid out by the 5th Duke on the site of the gardens of his former home Bedford House, their London house. Other local street names relating to the Duke of Bedford include Bedford Square, Bedford Place, Bedford Avenue, Bedford Row and Bedford Way; Woburn Square and Woburn Place (from Woburn Abbey); Tavistock Square, Tavistock Place and Tavistock Street (Marquess of Tavistock), and Thornhaugh Street (after a subsidiary title Baron of Thornhaugh). The street lamps around this area carry the Bedford Arms.
Russell Square Station is not far from the British Museum, the University of London's main campus, Great Ormond Street Hospital and Russell Square Gardens. Its location is adjacent to the Brunswick Centre. The station is a Grade II listed building. Russell Square station has three lifts and are all fifty-passenger lifts built by Wadsworth. However, there are no escalators but the platforms can still be reached using a spiral staircase with 171 steps. It is said that the signs at the station indicate an incorrect number of steps, which is 175 steps. The station has 4 payphones (two on the platforms and two in the ticket halls), 7 gates, a Wifi service, 5 vending machines and a photo booth.
Connections: London Bus routes 7, 59, 68, 91, 98, 168, 188 and X68 and night routes N7, N91 and N98 serve the station..